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Nemeckaya yadernaya programma Yazyk Sledit Pravit Nemeckaya yadernaya programma raboty napravlennye na sozdanie yadernogo oruzhiya kotorye osushestvlyalis v gitlerovskoj Germanii v 1939 1945 godah Kopiya nemeckogo yadernogo reaktora v Hajgerlohe Soderzhanie 1 Predystoriya 2 Nachalo prakticheskih rabot po sozdaniyu yadernogo oruzhiya 3 Zayavlenie internirovannyh nemeckih uchyonyh dlya pressy 4 Prichiny neudachi proekta 5 Nemeckie uchyonye v SSSR 6 Naibolee znachimye uchastniki proekta 7 Sm takzhe 8 Primechaniya 9 Literatura 9 1 Na russkom yazyke 9 2 Na inostrannyh yazykah 10 SsylkiPredystoriya PravitV dekabre 1938 goda nemeckie fiziki Otto Gan i Fric Shtrassman vpervye v mire osushestvili iskusstvennoe rassheplenie yadra atoma urana 24 aprelya 1939 goda v vysshie voennye instancii Germanii postupilo pismo za podpisyu professora Gamburgskogo universiteta Paulya Harteka i ego sotrudnika doktora V Grota v kotorom ukazyvalos na principialnuyu vozmozhnost sozdaniya novogo vida vysokoeffektivnogo vzryvchatogo veshestva V nyom govorilos chto ta strana kotoraya pervoj sumeet prakticheski ovladet dostizheniyami yadernoj fiziki priobretyot absolyutnoe prevoshodstvo nad drugimi 29 aprelya 1939 goda imperskoe ministerstvo nauki vospitaniya i narodnogo obrazovaniya po porucheniyu rukovoditelya specialnogo otdela fiziki imperskogo issledovatelskogo soveta gosudarstvennogo sovetnika professora Abrahama Ezau provelo obsuzhdenie voprosa o samostoyatelno rasprostranyayushejsya yadernoj reakcii na kotoroe sredi prochih byl priglashyon professor E Shuman rukovoditel issledovatelskogo otdela Upravleniya vooruzhenij suhoputnyh sil III Rejha Pismo Harteka i Grota bylo peredano fiziku Kurtu Dibneru iz nauchnogo otdela Upravleniya vooruzhenij Po nastojchivym prosbam Dibnera Upravlenie vooruzhenij ne dozhidayas prinyatiya oficialnogo resheniya vysshih voennyh vlastej osvobodilo Dibnera ot vypolneniya vseh pobochnyh rabot i poruchilo emu zanimatsya tolko voprosami yadernoj fiziki sozdav dlya etogo specialnoe otdelenie V iyune 1939 goda Dibner organizoval sooruzhenie pervoj v Germanii reaktornoj sborki na poligone Kummersdorf pod Berlinom V 1939 godu rabochaya gruppa professora A Ezau po probleme yadernoj energii pri rejhsministerstve obrazovaniya iniciirovala prinyatie zakona o zaprete vyvoza urana iz Germanii U belgijskoj firmy Union Miniere v Belgijskom Kongo bylo srochno zakupleno bolshoe kolichestvo uranovoj rudy Nachalo prakticheskih rabot po sozdaniyu yadernogo oruzhiya Pravit26 sentyabrya 1939 goda Upravlenie armejskih vooruzhenij dlya rassmotreniya voprosa o sposobah sozdaniya yadernogo oruzhiya sobralo soveshanie specialistov v oblasti yadernoj fiziki 1 na kotoroe byli priglasheny Paul Hartek Hans Vilgelm Gejger Valter Bote Kurt Dibner a takzhe Karl Fridrih fon Vajczekker i Verner Gejzenberg 2 Na nyom bylo prinyato reshenie zasekretit vse raboty imeyushie pryamoe ili kosvennoe otnoshenie k uranovoj probleme i osushestvleniyu programmy poluchivshej nazvanie Uranovyj proekt nem Uranprojekt Kernwaffenprojekt Uchastniki soveshaniya poschitali vozmozhnym sozdanie yadernogo oruzhiya za 9 12 mesyacev Vsego v Germanii bylo 22 nauchnye organizacii napryamuyu svyazannye s atomnym proektom v chisle kotoryh klyuchevye funkcii vypolnyali Fizicheskij institut Obshestva kajzera Vilgelma Institut fizicheskoj himii Gamburgskogo universiteta Fizicheskij institut Vysshej tehnicheskoj shkoly v Berline Fizicheskij institut Instituta medicinskih issledovanij Gejdelberg Fiziko himicheskij institut Lejpcigskogo universiteta Professor Hejn Organicheskie soedineniya urana Laboratoriya neorganicheskoj himii Vysshej tehnicheskoj shkoly v Myunhene Professor Hiber Issledovanie karbonilnyh soedinenij urana Himicheskij institut Bonnskogo universiteta Professor Sh Mont Izuchenie galogenidov urana Institut organicheskoj himii Vysshej tehnicheskoj shkoly v Dancige Professor G Albers Alkogolyaty urana Yadernyj reaktor v Hajgerlohe Razrabotkami vedal imperskij ministr vooruzhenij Albert Shpeer administrativnym rukovoditelem gruppy Gejzenberga Otto Gana Vajczekkera i dr stal fizik Erih Shuman 2 Koncern IG Farbenindustri nachal izgotovlenie shestiftoristogo urana prigodnogo dlya polucheniya urana 235 a takzhe sooruzhenie polupromyshlennoj ustanovki po razdeleniyu izotopov Ona predstavlyala soboj dve koncentricheskie truby odna iz kotoryh vnutrennyaya nagrevalas a vtoraya naruzhnaya ohlazhdalas Mezhdu nimi dolzhen byl podavatsya gazoobraznyj shestiftoristyj uran i pri etom bolee legkie izotopy uran 235 dolzhny byli by podnimatsya vverh bystree a bolee tyazhelye uran 238 medlennee chto pozvolilo by otdelyat ih drug ot druga metod Kluziusa Dikkelya Togda zhe Verner Gejzenberg nachal teoreticheskie raboty po konstruirovaniyu yadernogo reaktora V svoyom otchyote Vozmozhnost tehnicheskogo polucheniya energii pri rassheplenii urana zakonchennom v dekabre 1939 g Gejzenberg prishyol k sleduyushemu vyvodu V celom mozhno schitat chto pri smesi uran tyazhyolaya voda v share radiusom okolo 60 sm okruzhyonnom vodoj okolo 1000 kg tyazhyoloj vody i 1200 kg urana nachnetsya spontannoe vydelenie energii Odnovremenno Gejzenberg rasschital parametry drugogo reaktora v kotorom uran i tyazhyolaya voda ne smeshivalis a raspolagalis sloyami Po ego mneniyu process rasshepleniya podderzhivalsya by dolgoe vremya esli by ustanovka sostoyala iz sloyov urana tolshinoj 4 sm i ploshadyu okolo 1 m2 peremezhaemyh sloyami tyazheloj vody tolshinoj okolo 5 sm prichem posle trehkratnogo povtoreniya sloev urana i tyazhyoloj vody neobhodim sloj chistogo ugleroda 10 20 sm a ves reaktor snaruzhi takzhe dolzhen byt okruzhen sloem chistogo ugleroda Na osnovanii etih raschetov firma Auerge poluchila zakaz na izgotovlenie nebolshih kolichestv urana a norvezhskaya firma Norsk Hydro dolzhna byla postavit tyazhyoluyu vodu Vo dvore Fizicheskogo instituta v Berline dlya podtverzhdeniya raschyotov Gejzenberga nachalos sooruzhenie reaktornoj sborki 5 yanvarya 1940 g doktorom Telypovym ot imeni Obshestva kajzera Vilgelma i 17 yanvarya 1940 g generalom Bekkerom ot Upravleniya vooruzhenij byl podpisan dogovor o peredache Fizicheskogo instituta v vedenie armii na vremya vojny Pervoj neudachej germanskogo yadernogo proekta stalo to chto ustanovka dlya razdeleniya izotopov po metodu Kluziusa Dikkelya smontirovannaya v Leverkuzene okazalas nerabotayushej i v nachale 1941 g uchyonye vynuzhdeny byli priznat chto razdelenie izotopov urana etim metodom nevozmozhno V rezultate nemeckie uchyonye potratili na besplodnye eksperimenty okolo goda Nemeckie fiziki razrabotali ne menee pyati sposobov obogasheniya urana Zakonomerno to chto sredi nih naibolee perspektivnym schitalsya inercionnyj sposob to est razdelenie izotopov s pomoshyu specialnoj centrifugi Schitaetsya chto proekt centrifugirovaniya ne byl realizovan potomu chto u doktora Grota zanimavshegosya stroitelstvom centrifugi ne hvatilo terpeniya i deneg chtoby dovesti rabotu do konca Takzhe est mneniya chto blizok k uspehu byl i baron M fon Ardenne v laboratorii kotorogo byl postroen elektromagnitnyj separator po svoim harakteristikam ne ustupavshij analogichnomu amerikanskomu ustrojstvu 3 V konce 1940 g Gejzenberg provodil eksperiment po sozdaniyu reaktornoj sborki na osnove vypolnennyh im ranee raschyotov no cepnuyu reakciyu vyzvat ne udalos i Gejzenbergu i ego sotrudnikam stalo yasno chto teoreticheskie raschyoty polozhennye v osnovu eksperimenta neverny Sushestvuet mnenie chto nemeckie uchyonye ne smogli osushestvit samopodderzhivayushuyusya yadernuyu reakciyu v svyazi s tem chto v Germanii ne bylo dostatochnogo kolichestva tyazhyoloj vody kak materiala zamedlitelya nejtronov togda kak bolee dostupnyj grafit v kachestve zamedlitelya nejtronov nemcy ne ispolzovali iz za znamenitoj oshibki Bote professora Valtera Bote 4 No eto ne sovsem tak Bote ne sdelal nikakoj oshibki prosto issleduemyj im grafit ne byl dostatochno chistym a rukovoditeli proekta ne zanyalis voprosom issledovaniya vozmozhnosti polucheniya bolee chistogo grafita 5 Takzhe est mnenie chto imel mesto deficit chistogo grafita kotoryj trebovalsya v pervoocherednom poryadke dlya izgotovleniya gazovyh rulej ballisticheskoj rakety Fau 2 6 V serii opytov provedyonnyh v avguste sentyabre 1941 g v Lejpcige V Gejzenberg K F fon Vajczekker i R Dyopel dobilis polozhitelnogo rezultata razmnozheniya nejtronov chto sluzhilo dokazatelstvom protekavshej v masse urana cepnoj reakcii odnako eta reakciya eshyo ne byla samopodderzhivavshejsya V zapiske ot 27 noyabrya 1941 g Gejzenberg predlozhil vse raboty po uranovomu proektu razdelit na neobhodimye vazhnye i nevazhnye Neobhodimymi on schital tolko takie kotorye delayut vozmozhnym stroitelstvo v kratchajshij srok po menshej mere odnogo dejstvuyushego reaktora vazhnymi te kotorye mogut povysit kachestvo raboty reaktora prochie raboty Gejzenberg prichislil k nevazhnym Podlinnyj kubik iz urana sluzhivshij yadernym goryuchim Pervyj nemeckij reaktor byl postroen k fevralyu 1942 goda na chetyre mesyaca ranshe chem analogichnaya razrabotka Fermi v Chikago 7 Eto byl opytnyj reaktor Lejpcigskogo instituta razrabotannyj professorom Gejzenbergom i suprugami Dyopel 7 Uranovaya mashina tak nazyvali reaktor 8 sostoyala iz dvuh alyuminievyh polusfer s pomeshennymi vnutri 572 kilogrammami urana v vide poroshka i 140 kilogrammami tyazhyoloj vody Massa reaktora razmeshyonnogo vnutri rezervuara s vodoj priblizhalas k tonne Vnutri sfery s uranovoj nachinkoj byl pomeshen nejtronnyj iniciator v vide obychnogo radij berillievogo pervichnogo istochnika nejtronov Izmereniya potoka nejtronov iz zagruzhennogo reaktora pokazali chto poverhnosti reaktora dostigalo gorazdo bolshe nejtronov chem izluchal ih pervichnyj radij berillievyj istochnik i R Dyopel poslal soobshenie v otdel vooruzhenij vermahta chto reaktor rabotaet 9 Uranovaya mashina vzorvalas po ne vpolne yasnym prichinam 23 iyunya 1942 goda pervaya atomnaya avariya v istorii 4 iyunya 1942 g imperskim ministrom vooruzheniya i boepripasov A Shpeerom bylo sozvano soveshanie voennogo rukovodstva i uchyonyh po yadernoj probleme Na nyom Gejzenberg skazal chto reshenie proizvodstvenno tehnicheskih problem dolzhno zanyat ne menee dvuh let i to pri uslovii esli kazhdoe trebovanie uchyonyh budet vypolnyatsya V rezultate dlya proekta byli vydeleny denezhnye sredstva fondy na deficitnye materialy byli utverzhdeny minimalnye sroki stroitelstva bunkera dlya atomnogo reaktora v Berline izgotovleniya metallicheskogo urana i postavki oborudovaniya dlya razdeleniya izotopov V fevrale 1943 g norvezhskim diversantam zaslannym iz Velikobritanii udalos unichtozhit zavod po proizvodstvu tyazheloj vody v Norvegii V marte 1943 g v svyazi s nastroeniyami rukovodstva strany Upravlenie vooruzhenij otkazalos ot rabot po Uranovomu proektu i oni byli peredany v vedenie imperskogo issledovatelskogo soveta Gruppa doktora Dibnera takzhe razrabatyvala shemu yadernogo vzryvnogo ustrojstva v vide shara iz vzryvchatogo veshestva vnutri kotorogo nahodilis kubiki urana 10 Doktor Trinks razrabatyval dazhe ne yadernuyu a vodorodnuyu bombu Eta rabota sohranilas v shestistranichnom dokumentalnom otchyote Opyty vozbuzhdeniya yadernyh reakcij s pomoshyu vzryvov Doktor Trinks pytalsya rezko nagret tyazhyolyj vodorod pri pomoshi obzhatiya obychnym vzryvchatym veshestvom serebryanogo shara Trinks rasschityval chto smozhet sozdat yadernuyu bombu na takom principe Trinks neskolko raz povtoryal popytki iniciirovaniya termoyadernyh reakcij v tyazhyolom vodorode no ne obnaruzhil vyhoda radioaktivnogo izlucheniya V yanvare 1944 g Gejzenberg poluchil litye uranovye plastiny dlya bolshoj reaktornoj sborki v Berline dlya kotoroj sooruzhalsya specialnyj bunker Poslednij eksperiment po polucheniyu cepnoj reakcii byl namechen na yanvar 1945 g no 31 yanvarya vse oborudovanie speshno demontirovali i otpravili na yug Germanii Nemeckij eksperimentalnyj yadernyj reaktor v Hajgerlohe aprel 1945 V konce fevralya 1945 g reaktor B VIII pribyl iz Berlina v posyolok Hajgerloh Reaktor sostoyal iz aktivnoj zony sostoyashej iz 664 kubikov urana obshim vesom 1525 kg okruzhyonnoj grafitovym zamedlitelem otrazhatelem nejtronov vesom 10 tonn V marte 1945 g v aktivnuyu zonu dopolnitelno vlili eshyo 1 5 tonny tyazhyoloj vody 23 marta 1945 g professor Gerlah pozvonil v Berlin i dolozhil chto reaktor rabotaet No radost byla prezhdevremenna reaktor ne sumel dostich kriticheskoj tochki Posle pereraschyotov okazalos chto kolichestvo urana neobhodimo uvelichit eshyo na 750 kg a krome togo uvelichit kolichestvo tyazhyoloj vody zapasov kotoroj uzhe ne ostavalos Konec Tretego rejha neumolimo priblizhalsya i 23 aprelya v Hajgerloh voshli amerikanskie vojska 11 Zayavlenie internirovannyh nemeckih uchyonyh dlya pressy Pravit3 iyulya 1945 g gruppa nemeckih uchyonyh i apparatura byli dostavleny v byvshuyu usadbu Farm Holl v Anglii gde byla ustanovlena podslushivayushaya tehnika 6 avgusta 1945 g starshij oficer usadby Farm Holl major Ritner podtverdil vzryv atomnoj bomby pri pervoj v mire atomnoj bombardirovke Yaponii Soedinyonnym Shtatami Uchyonye kotoryh obeskurazhili izvestiya o sostoyavshemsya amerikanskom atomnom proekte sostavili otzyv na gazetnye publikacii kotorye byli k tomu vremeni im dostupny 12 V poslednih soobsheniyah pechati byl dopushen ryad netochnostej v osveshenii yakoby proizvodivshihsya v Germanii rabot po sozdaniyu atomnoj bomby V svyazi s etim nam hotelos by kratko oharakterizovat nemeckie raboty po uranovoj probleme Delenie atomnogo yadra urana otkryto Ganom i Shtrassmanom v Institute kajzera Vilgelma v dekabre 1938 g Eto rezultat chisto nauchnyh issledovanij ne imevshih nichego obshego s prikladnymi celyami Lish posle opublikovaniya soobshenij o tom chto podobnoe otkrytie pochti odnovremenno sdelano v raznyh stranah poyavilas mysl o vozmozhnosti cepnoj yadernoj reakcii i eyo prakticheskogo ispolzovaniya dlya atomnyh energeticheskih ustanovok V nachale vojny byla obrazovana gruppa iz uchyonyh kotorye poluchili ukazaniya issledovat prakticheskie primeneniya etogo otkrytiya V konce 1941 g predvaritelnye issledovaniya pokazali chto atomnuyu energiyu mozhno ispolzovat dlya polucheniya para i sledovatelno dlya privedeniya v dvizhenie razlichnyh mashin S drugoj storony uchityvaya tehnicheskie vozmozhnosti dostupnye v Germanii v tot moment nelzya bylo sozdat atomnuyu bombu Poetomu vse posleduyushie raboty byli napravleny na sozdanie atomnogo dvigatelya dlya chego krome urana poyavilas neobhodimost v tyazhyoloj vode Dlya polucheniya bolshih kolichestv tyazhyoloj vody byl pereoborudovan norvezhskij zavod v Ryukane Odnako dejstviyami snachala partizan a zatem aviacii etot zavod byl vyveden iz stroya i snova nachal rabotat lish k koncu 1943 g Odnovremenno vo Frejburge provodilis eksperimenty po usovershenstvovaniyu metoda ne trebuyushego tyazhyoloj vody i osnovannogo na uvelichenii koncentracii redkogo izotopa urana urana 235 Opyty po polucheniyu energii v kotoryh ispolzovalsya nalichnyj zapas tyazhyoloj vody provodilis v Berline a vposledstvii v Hajgerloke Vyurtemberg K momentu okonchaniya vojny oni prodvinulis nastolko chto ustanovka po polucheniyu energii mogla by byt postroena za korotkoe vremya Prichiny neudachi proekta PravitVopros o vozmozhnosti sozdaniya uchyonymi Tretego rejha atomnoj bomby ostaetsya otkrytym do sih por V 1939 1941 godah nacistskaya Germaniya raspolagala sootvetstvuyushimi usloviyami dlya sozdaniya atomnogo oruzhiya ona imela neobhodimye proizvodstvennye moshnosti v himicheskoj elektrotehnicheskoj mashinostroitelnoj promyshlennosti i cvetnoj metallurgii a takzhe dostatochnye finansovye sredstva i materialy obshego naznacheniya Nauchnyj potencial takzhe byl ochen vysok i imelis neobhodimye znaniya v oblasti fiziki atomnogo yadra Chasto utverzhdaetsya chto atomnaya bomba v nacistskoj Germanii ne byla sozdana potomu chto totalitarnyj nacistskij rezhim prepyatstvoval razvitiyu nauchnogo tvorchestva neterpimo otnosilsya k uchyonym evrejskogo proishozhdeniya to est sozdaniyu atomnoj bomby prepyatstvoval sushestvuyushij v Germanii politicheskij stroj Sushestvuet drugaya tochka zreniya o tom chto v strane fakticheski stoyavshej u istokov otkrytiya yadernoj energii Otto Gan Liza Mejtner Maks Born Otto Frish Rudolf Pajerls sushestvovalo dostatochno uchyonyh prinyavshih nacistskij rezhim dostatochno spokojno i prodolzhavshih uspeshno i tvorcheski truditsya V Germanii dazhe posle otezda mnogih uchyonyh ne prinyavshih nacizm ili ispytyvayushih trudnosti v svyazi s evrejskim proishozhdeniem ostavalos mnogo uchyonyh ne menee proslavlennyh i plodotvornyh chem uehavshie naprimer Verner Gejzenberg Karl fon Vajczekker Valter Bote Manfred fon Ardenne i mnogie drugie Obsheprinyato mnenie chto pomimo ryada vysheizlozhennyh oshibok uchyonyh v nachale rabot proekt ne byl uspeshno realizovan vvidu vybora tyazhyolovodnogo puti ne optimalnogo s tochki zreniya bystrogo dostizheniya cepnoj yadernoj reakcii neobhodimoj dlya sozdaniya yadernogo oruzhiya Na osushestvlenie etoj metodiki kak i razvyornutogo tolko k koncu rabot grafitovogo puti ne hvatilo vremeni do voennogo razgroma Rejha Rasprostraneno mnenie ob ignorirovanii rukovoditelyami rejha v chastnosti Gimmlerom Geringom Kejtelem Bormanom atomnoj problemy Vyvod ob etom inogda delaetsya na tom osnovanii chto oni lichno ne uchastvovali v sootvetstvuyushih soveshaniyah Odnako i na soveshaniyah po raketnoj programme ni Gimmler ni Gering ni drugie rukovoditeli rejha ne uchastvovali chto ne meshalo im byt v kurse problem 13 V to zhe vremya izvestno chto v seredine vojny v rukovodstve strany vozobladali nastroeniya o neobhodimosti sosredotocheniya nauchnyh proizvodstvennyh i finansovyh resursov tolko na proektah dayushih skorejshuyu otdachu v vide sozdaniya novyh vidov oruzhiya V svyazi s etim Uranovyj proekt byl peredan iz prioritetnoj voennoj nauki v grazhdanskuyu chto zatormozilo ego osushestvlenie tak zhe kak i bystroe dovedenie do boevogo primeneniya pervyh v mire boevyh ballisticheskih raket Fau 2 sozdanie po proektu Amerika mezhkontinentalnyh raket A 9 A 10 chastichno orbitalnogo bombardirovshika Silbervogel kak i ryada drugih proektov Izvestno takzhe chto na germanskie atomnye issledovaniya bylo zatracheno v dvesti raz menshe sredstv i v nih bylo zanyato v poltory tysyachi raz menshe lyudej chem v amerikanskom Manhettenskom proekte 14 Nemeckie uchyonye v SSSR PravitOsnovnaya statya Sozdanie sovetskoj atomnoj bomby S 1945 g odnovremenno s poiskom na territorii poverzhennoj Germanii nemeckih uchyonyh i inzhenerov vseh specialnostej imeyushih hotya by kosvennoe otnoshenie k voennym issledovaniyam i proizvodstvu nachinaetsya poisk i vyvoz na territoriyu SSSR luchshih nemeckih uchyonyh yadershikov Chast vyvezennyh v SSSR nemcev uchyonyh byla najdena v lageryah dlya voennoplennyh Vsego bylo vyyavleno 1600 chelovek imevshih otnoshenie k yadernym issledovaniyam sredi nih 111 doktorov fiziko matematicheskih nauk Iz obnaruzhennyh nemeckih fizikov yadershikov dlya vyvoza v SSSR bylo otobrano okolo 300 400 specialistov M G Pervuhin i A P Zavenyagin pisali L Beriya Otobrano 208 specialistov Krome ranee napravlennyh v instituty A i G i laboratoriyu V 89 voennoplennyh specialistov schitat vozmozhnym dopolnitelno napravit na obekty 9 go upravleniya MVD SSSR 190 chelovek v tom chisle v instituty A i G 93 cheloveka v laboratoriyu V 41 chelovek v institut B 37 chelovek v gruppu prof Dyopellya 19 chelovek Sredi vyvezennyh dlya raboty nad sovetskoj atomnoj bomboj specialistov byli takie korifei mirovoj nauki kak professor G Gerc professor M Folmer professor P Dyopel professor H Poze professor M fon Ardenne professor P Tissen Dr M Shteenbek Dr N Ril i mnogie dr Professor Gustav Gerc laureat Nobelevskoj premii vozglavil institut pod shifrom G v g Suhumi zanimayushijsya problemoj razdeleniya izotopov metodom gazovoj diffuzii Ardenne vozglavlyaet institut pod shifrom A zanimayushijsya razdeleniem izotopov magnitnym sposobom Professor H Poze vozglavil institut pod shifrom V v Obninske zanimayushijsya razrabotkoj yadernyh reaktorov i obshej teoriej yadernyh processov Professora R Dyopel i M Folmer trudilis v znamenitom sejchas Plutonievom institute NII 9 Doppel sozdaet apparaturu dlya izmerenij kinetiki yadernyh vzryvov a Folmer proektiruet zavod po proizvodstvu tyazhyoloj vody Doktor M Shteenbek v institute A proektiroval v SSSR centrifugi dlya razdeleniya izotopov urana metodom gazovogo centrifugirovaniya Do etogo vsyu svoyu soznatelnuyu zhizn on zanimalsya v osnovnom fizikoj gazovogo razryada fizikoj plazmy V Suhumi vpervye byl vynuzhden zanyatsya problemoj razdeleniya izotopov Posle neudachnyh popytok testirovaniya metoda kondensacii im sovmestno s inzhenerami Gernotom Cippe i Rudolfom Sheflerom byla razrabotana originalnaya gazovaya centrifuga Cippe dlya razdeleniya izotopov urana osnovnaya shema i uzly kotoroj ispolzuyutsya do sih por vo vseh stranah Professor P Tissen razrabatyvaet i sozdaet diafragmy dlya gazodiffuzionnyh ustanovok razdeleniya izotopov kotorye nachali proizvodit pod ego rukovodstvom v Elektrostali i kotorye byli uspeshno primeneny na zavode v Novouralske Uzhe posle vzryva pervoj sovetskoj atomnoj bomby mnogie uchyonye atomshiki iz Germanii poluchili vysshie sovetskie pravitelstvennye nagrady Professor N Ril poluchil zvanie Geroya Socialisticheskogo Truda SSSR Mnogie nemeckie specialisty byli nagrazhdeny nagradami SSSR ili bolshimi denezhnymi premiyami Fon Ardenne byl takzhe nagrazhdyon gosudarstvennoj premiej SSSR Pod rukovodstvom professora Rilya v g Noginske byli otrabotany promyshlennye tehnologii polucheniya chistogo urana Dokumenty togo vremeni govoryat Sejchas proizvodstvo urana cherez chetyryohftoristuyu sol po metodu doktora Rilya bystro uvelichivaetsya i v nastoyashee vremya ceha osnovnogo zavoda perehodyat na rabotu polnostyu po etomu metodu 15 Naibolee znachimye uchastniki proekta PravitO Gan V Gejzenberg V Gerlah K F fon Vajczekker P Debaj H Gejger V Bote G Gofman R DyopelSm takzhe PravitOruzhie vozmezdiya Nauka i tehnika Tretego rejha Istoriya yadernogo oruzhiya Trofejnye brigady Missiya Alsos Operaciya Epsilon U 234Primechaniya Pravit Vsevolod Ovchinnikov Goryachij pepel Hronika tajnoj gonki za obladanie atomnym oruzhiem M 1984 S 20 1 2 Vsevolod Ovchinnikov Goryachij pepel Hronika tajnoj gonki za obladanie atomnym oruzhiem M 1984 S 21 Anton Pervushin Chudo oruzhie tretego rejha Rokovaya oshibka Telefon Drugie knigi i materialy Materialy Mobilemanual org nedostupnaya ssylka Iojrysh Abram Isaakovich Morohov Igor Dmitrievich Ivanov Sergej Kuzmich A bomba Chertok B E Rakety i lyudi 2 e izd M Mashinostroenie 1999 416 s 1 300 ekz ISBN 5 217 02934 X glava Chto takoe Penemyunde 1 2 Physics and National Socialism An Anthology of Primary Sources Google Books Paul Lawrence Rose Heisenberg and the Nazi Atomic Bomb Project 1939 1945 University of California Press 2002 ISBN 978 0 520 22926 6 P 147 148 Physics and National Socialism An Anthology of Primary Sources Springer 2011 P 311 Hitler s Nuclear Weapons Geoffrey Brooks Google Books Mark Walker German National Socialism and the Quest for Nuclear Power 1939 49 Cambridge University Press 1992 P 158 Grovs L Teper ob etom mozhno rasskazat Glava dvadcat chetvertaya Reakciya nemeckih uchyonyh M Atomizdat 1964 Dornberger V FAU 2 M Centrpoligraf 2004 str 242 V Ovchinnikov Goryachij pepel nedostupnaya ssylka Ryabev L D Atomnyj proekt SSSR kn 1 Atomnaya bomba 1945 1954 Atomnyj proekt SSSR dokumenty i materialy Tom 2 Chast 3 Nauka 2002 ISBN 502015007XLiteratura PravitV sentyabre 2011 g vpervye na russkom yazyke vyhodit kniga o Nikolause Rile tirazhom 1000 ekz 2 Nikolaus Ril v Atomnom proekte SSSR avtor sostavitel Vladimir Ananijchuk podgotovlena redakcionno izdatelskoj gruppoj Rossijskogo federalnogo yadernogo centra VNIITF pod rukovodstvom Galiny Kazachenkovoj Pomosh i finansovuyu podderzhku okazali organy vlasti Snezhinska V etoj knige publikuyutsya ranee sekretnye materialy i vpervye na russkom yazyke memuary Nikolausa Rilya Desyat let v zolotoj kletke perevodchik Nina Antonova Na russkom yazyke Pravit Kozyrev M Kozyrev V Neobychnoe oruzhie tretego rejha M Centrpoligraf 2007 Pervushin A Astronavty Gitlera M Eksmo Yauza 2004 Klark R Rozhdenie bomby M Gos izd literat v oblasti atomnoj nauki i tehniki 1962 Irving Dzh Virusnyj fligel M Atomizdat 1969Na inostrannyh yazykah Pravit Bernstein Jeremy Hitler s Uranium Club The Secret Recording s at Farm Hall Copernicus 2001 ISBN 0 387 95089 3 Bernstein Jeremy Heisenberg and the critical mass Am J Phys Volume 70 Number 9 911 916 2002 Bernstein Jeremy Heisenberg in Poland Am J Phys Volume 72 Number 3 300 304 2004 See also Letters to the Editor by Klaus Gottstein and a reply by Jeremy Bernstein in Am J Phys Volume 72 Number 9 1143 1145 2004 Beyerchen Alan D Scientists Under Hitler Politics and the Physics Community in the Third Reich Yale 1977 ISBN 0 300 01830 4 Gimbel John U S Policy and German Scientists The Early Cold War Political Science Quarterly Volume 101 Number 3 433 451 1986 Gimbel John Science Technology and Reparations Exploitation and Plunder in Postwar Germany Stanford 1990 Goudsmit Samuel with an introduction by R V Jones Alsos Toamsh 1986 Heisenberg Werner Research in Germany on the Technical Applications of Atomic Energy Nature Volume 160 Number 4059 211 215 August 16 1947 See also the annotated English translation Document 115 Werner Heisenberg Research in Germany on the Technical Application of Atomic Energy August 16 1947 in Hentschel Klaus editor and Ann M Hentschel editorial assistant and translator Physics and National Socialism An Anthology of Primary Sources Birkhauser 1996 361 379 Hentschel Klaus editor and Ann M Hentschel editorial assistant and translator Physics and National Socialism An Anthology of Primary Sources Birkhauser 1996 ISBN 0 8176 5312 0 This book is a collection of 121 primary German documents relating to physics under National Socialism The documents have been translated and annotated and there is a lengthy introduction to put them into perspective Hoffmann Dieter Between Autonomy and Accommodation The German Physical Society during the Third Reich Physics in Perspective 7 3 293 329 2005 Kant Horst Werner Heisenberg and the German Uranium Project Otto Hahn and the Declarations of Mainau and Gottingen Preprint 203 Max Planck Institut fur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 2002 Landsman N P Getting even with Heisenberg Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics Volume 33 297 325 2002 Macrakis Kristie Surviving the Swastika Scientific Research in Nazi Germany Oxford 1993 Mehra Jagdish and Helmut Rechenberg The Historical Development of Quantum Theory Volume 6 The Completion of Quantum Mechanics 1926 1941 Part 2 The Conceptual Completion and Extension of Quantum Mechanics 1932 1941 Epilogue Aspects of the Further Development of Quantum Theory 1942 1999 Springer 2001 ISBN 978 0 387 95086 0 Norman M Naimark The Russians in Germany A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation 1945 1949 Belkanp 1995 Riehl Nikolaus and Frederick Seitz Stalin s Captive Nikolaus Riehl and the Soviet Race for the Bomb American Chemical Society and the Chemical Heritage Foundations 1996 ISBN 0 8412 3310 1 Oleynikov Pavel V German Scientists in the Soviet Atomic Project The Nonproliferation Review Volume 7 Number 2 1 30 2000 The author has been a group leader at the Institute of Technical Physics of the Russian Federal Nuclear Center in Snezhinsk Chelyabinsk 70 Walker Mark German National Socialism and the Quest for Nuclear Power 1939 1949 Cambridge 1993 ISBN 0 521 43804 7 Walker Mark Eine Waffenschmiede Kernwaffen und Reaktorforschung am Kaiser Wilhelm Institut fur Physik Forschungsprogramm Geschichte der Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft im Nationalsozialismus Ergebnisse 26 2005 Albrecht Ulrich Andreas Heinemann Gruder and Arend Wellmann Die Spezialisten Deutsche Naturwissenschaftler und Techniker in der Sowjetunion nach 1945 Dietz 1992 2001 ISBN 3320017888 Bernstein Jeremy and David Cassidy Bomb Apologetics Farm Hall August 1945 Physics Today Volume 48 Issue 8 Part I 32 36 1995 Beyerchen Alan What We Know About Nazism and Science Social Research Volume 59 Number 3 615 641 1992 Bethe Hans A The German Uranium Project Physics Today Volume 53 Issue 7 34 36 Cassidy David C Heisenberg German Science and the Third Reich Social Research Volume 59 Number 3 643 661 1992 Cassidy David C Uncertainty The Life and Science of Werner Heisenberg Freeman 1992 Cassidy David C A Historical Perspective on Copenhagen Physics Today Volume 53 Issue 7 28 2000 See also Heisenberg s Message to Bohr Who Knows Physics Today Volume 54 Issue 4 14ff 2001 individual letters by Klaus Gottstein Harry J Lipkin Donald C Sachs and David C Cassidy Eckert Michael Werner Heisenberg controversial scientist physicsweb org 2001 Heisenberg Werner Die theoretischen Grundlagen fur die Energiegewinnung aus der Uranspaltung Zeitschrift fur die gesamte Natruwiessenschaft Volume 9 201 212 1943 See also the annotated English translation Document 95 Werner Heisenberg The Theoretical Basis for the Generation of Energy from Uranium Fission February 26 1942 in Hentschel Klaus editor and Ann M Hentschel editorial assistant and translator Physics and National Socialism An Anthology of Primary Sources Birkhauser 1996 294 301 Heisenberg Werner introduction by David Cassidy translation by William Sweet A Lecture on Bomb Physics February 1942 Physics Today Volume 48 Issue 8 Part I 27 30 1995 Hentschel Klaus The Metal Aftermath The Mentality of German Physicists 1945 1949 Oxford 2007 Hoffmann Dieter Zwischen Autonomie und Anpassung Die Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft im Dritten Reich Max Planck Institut fur Wissenschafts Geschichte Preprint 192 2001 Hoffmann Dieter and Mark Walker The German Physical Society Under National Socialism Physics Today 57 12 52 58 2004 Hoffmann Dieter Between Autonomy and Accommodation The German Physical Society during the Third Reich Physics in Perspective 7 3 293 329 2005 Hoffmann Dieter and Mark Walker Zwischen Autonomie Und Anpassung Physik Journal Volume 5 Number 3 53 58 2006 Hoffmann Dieter and Mark Walker Peter Debye A Typical Scientist in an Untypical Time Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft 2006 Hoffmann Dieter and Mark Walker editors Physiker Zwischen Autonomie Und Anpassung Wiley VCH 2007 Karlsch Rainer Hitlers Bombe Die geheime Geschichte der deutschen Kernwaffenversuche Dva 2005 Karlsch Rainer and Heiko Petermann Fur und Wider Hitlers Bombe Waxmann 2007 Krieger Wolfgang The Germans and the Nuclear Question German Historical Institute Washington D C Occasional Paper No 14 1995 Pash Boris T The Alsos Mission Award 1969 Powers Thomas Heisenberg s War The Secret History of the German Bomb Knopf 1993 Renneberg Monika and Mark Walker Science Technology and National Socialism Cambridge 1994 first paperback edition 2002 Rhodes Richard The Making of the Atomic Bomb Simon and Schuster 1986 Rose Paul Lawrence Heisenberg and the Nazi Atomic Bomb Project A Study in German Culture California 1998 For a critical review of this book please see Landsman N P Getting even with Heisenberg Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics Volume 33 297 325 2002 Schaaf Michael Heisenberg Hitler und die Bombe Gespraeche mit Zeitzeugen GNT Verlag 2001 Schumann Erich Wehrmacht und Froschung in Richard Donnevert editor Wehrmact und Partei second expanded edition Barth 1939 133 151 See also the annotated English translation Document 75 Erich Schumann Armed Forces and Research 1939 in Hentschel Klaus editor and Ann M Hentschel editorial assistant and translator Physics and National Socialism An Anthology of Primary Sources Birkhauser 1996 207 220 Sime Ruth Sime From Exceptional Prominence to Prominent Exception Lise Meitner at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry Ergebnisse 24 Forschungsprogramm Geschichte der Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft im Nationalsozialismus 2005 Ruth Lewin Sime The Politics of Memory Otto Hahn and the Third Reich Physics in PerspectiveVolume 8 Number 1 3 51 2006 Sime is retired from teaching chemistry at Sacramento City College Walker Mark National Socialism and German Physics Journal of Contemporary Physics Volume 24 63 89 1989 Walker Mark Heisenberg Goudsmit and the German Atomic Bomb Physics Today Volume 43 Issue 1 52 60 1990 Walker Mark Nazi Science Myth Truth and the German Atomic Bomb Perseus 1995 Walker Mark German Work on Nuclear Weapons Historia Scientiarum International Journal for the History of Science Society of Japan Volume 14 Number 3 164 181 2005 Walker Mark Eine Waffenschmiede Kernwaffen und Reaktorforschung am Kaiser Wilhelm Institut fur Physik Forschungsprogramm Geschichte der Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft im Nationalsozialismus Ergebnisse 26 2005 Mark Walker Otto Hahn Responsibility and Repression Physics in Perspective Volume 8 Number 2 116 163 2006 Mark Walker is Professor of History at Union College in Schenectady New York Ssylki PravitIojrysh Abram Isaakovich Morohov Igor Dmitrievich Ivanov Sergej Kuzmich A bomba Anton PERVUShIN Chudo oruzhie tretego rejha Yadernyj prioritet nacistov Aleksandr Volkov SEKRETY YaDERNYH DOSE V POISKAH PROPAVShEGO ORUZhIYa U Gitlera byla atomnaya bomba February 2002 Aaserud Finn Release of documents relating to 1941 Bohr Heisenberg meeting angl GlobalSecurity org German Special Weapons angl Niels Bohr Archive Release of documents relating to 1941 Bohr Heisenberg meeting 6 February 2002 angl June 2008 Annotated bibliography on the German atomic bomb project from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues angl Walker Mark Nazi s amp the Bomb from Public Broadcasting Service angl Istochnik https ru wikipedia org w index php title Nemeckaya yadernaya programma amp oldid 112723043, Википедия, чтение, книга, библиотека, поиск, нажмите,

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