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Senger Margaret Yazyk Sledit Pravit perenapravleno s Margaret Senger V Vikipedii est stati o drugih lyudyah s familiej Senger Zapros Margaret Higgins perenapravlyaetsya syuda ob amerikanskoj zhurnalistke sm Higgins Margarita Margaret Higgins Senger vstrechayutsya takzhe varianty transkripcii Zanger Sandzher Sendzher Sli angl Margaret Higgins Sanger Slee 14 sentyabrya 1879 6 sentyabrya 1966 amerikanskaya aktivistka osnovatelnica Amerikanskoj ligi kontrolya nad rozhdaemostyu angl American Birth Control League Senger otkryla v SShA pervuyu kliniku zanimavshuyusya kontrolem rozhdaemosti i osnovala Mezhdunarodnuyu associaciyu planirovaniya semi Aktivnaya storonnica i propagandistka kontracepcii negativnoj evgeniki i idej kontrolya nad rozhdaemostyu Vnesla vklad v znakovoe sudebnoe razbiratelstvo v Verhovnom sude SShA kotoroe legalizovalo kontracepciyu v SShA Eyo molodost proshla v Nyu Jorke gde ona sotrudnichala s takimi obshestvennymi deyatelyami kak Epton Sinkler i Emma Goldman V 1914 godu ona vystupila protiv abortov sovershaemyh v domashnih usloviyah i nachala publikovatsya v ezhemesyachnoj gazete Zhenskij bunt The Woman Rebel v kotoroj ona vpervye ispolzovala termin kontrol rozhdaemosti Margaret Higgins SengerMargaret SengerData rozhdeniya 14 sentyabrya 1879 1879 09 14 Mesto rozhdeniya Korning Nyu Jork SShAData smerti 6 sentyabrya 1966 1966 09 06 86 let Mesto smerti Tuson Arizona SShAStrana SShARod deyatelnosti Socialnyj reformator seksualnyj prosvetitel medsestraNagrady i premii Gumanist goda d 1957 Nacionalnyj zal slavy zhenshin 1981 Arizona Women s Hall of Fame d Mediafajly na Vikisklade V 1916 godu Senger otkryla pervuyu v SShA kliniku po regulirovaniyu rozhdaemosti chto privelo k eyo arestu za rasprostranenie informacii o kontracepcii Eyo posleduyushie vystupleniya poluchili ogromnuyu podderzhku v obshestve Senger schitala chto tak kak zhenshiny stali zanimat ravnoe polozhenie v obshestve s muzhchinami oni v sostoyanii sami prinimat reshenie o rozhdenii detej V 1921 godu Senger osnovala Amerikanskuyu ligu kontrolya nad rozhdaemostyu American Birth Control League kotoraya vposledstvii stala nazyvatsya Amerikanskoj federaciej planirovaniya semi Planned Parenthood Federation of America V Nyu Jorke Senger otkryla pervuyu kliniku po kontrolyu rozhdaemosti gde imelis zhenskie vrachi vseh specialnostej a takzhe kliniku v Garleme personal kotoroj byl polnostyu nabran iz afroamerikancev V 1929 godu ona sformirovala Nacionalnyj komitet Federalnogo zakonodatelstva po regulirovaniyu rozhdaemosti National Committee on Federal Legislation for Birth Control chto posluzhilo otpravnoj tochkoj dlya nachala eyo popytok legalizovat regulirovanie rozhdaemosti v SShA S 1952 po 1959 god Senger byla prezidentom Mezhdunarodnoj federacii planirovaniya semi Senger umerla v 1966 godu priobretya shirokuyu izvestnost kak osnovatel sovremennogo dvizheniya kontrolya nad rozhdaemostyu Soderzhanie 1 Biografiya 1 1 Molodost 1 2 Obshestvennaya deyatelnost 1 3 Dvizhenie za regulirovanie rozhdaemosti 1 4 Amerikanskaya Liga kontrolya nad rozhdaemostyu 1 5 Era planirovaniya semi 1 6 Nasledie Senger 2 Vzglyady i mneniya 2 1 Seksualnost 2 2 Evgenika 2 3 Rasa 2 4 Aborty 3 Raboty 4 Sm takzhe 5 Primechaniya 6 Istochniki 7 Bibliografiya 8 SsylkiBiografiya PravitMolodost Pravit Senger s synovyami Grantom i Styuartom okolo 1919 g Margaret Higgins rodilas v Koninge shtat Nyu Jork Mat Margaret Anna Persel Higgins byla ubezhdyonnoj katolichkoj 18 raz ona byla beremennoj 11 rozhdyonnyh detej v techenie 22 let 1 pered tem kak umerla v vozraste 45 let ot tuberkulyoza i raka shejki matki 2 Otec Margaret Majkl Hennesi Higgins byl ateistom i aktivistom dvizheniya za ravnopravie zhenshin i besplatnoe narodnoe obrazovanie 3 Margaret byla shestoj iz odinnadcati detej 4 i provela bolshuyu chast svoej yunosti pomogaya materi po domashnemu hozyajstvu i v vospitanii eyo mladshih bratev i sester Syostry Margaret oplachivali eyo obuchenie v Kolledzhe Klejverika pri pansione Klejverika shtat Nyu Jork v techenie dvuh let 5 Ona vernulas domoj v 1896 godu po prosbe eyo otca dlya uhoda za bolnoj materyu kotoraya umerla 31 marta 1899 goda 6 K koncu stoletiya mat odnogo iz eyo druzej iz Klaverika predlozhila ej rabotat v gospitale v Uajt Plejns predmeste Nyu Jorka 7 V 1902 godu Margaret Higgins vyshla zamuzh za arhitektora Uilyama Sengera i pereehala s nim v Nyu Jork 8 Margaret Senger zarazilas tuberkulezom v rezultate uhoda za svoej bolnoj materyu i vo vremya raboty v gospitale i Sengery pereehali v Saranak shtat Nyu Jork 9 Obshestvennaya deyatelnost Pravit V 1912 godu posle togo kak ih dom v Gastingse na Gudzone sgorel semya Sengerov snova pereehala v Nyu Jork gde Margaret nachala rabotat medsestroj v Ist Sajde na Manhettene Margaret i Uilyam pogruzilis v radikalnuyu bogemnuyu kulturu kotoraya procvetala v Grinvich Villidzh 10 i byli vovlecheny v sredu mestnyh intellektualov artistov i aktivistov takih kak Dzhon Rid Epton Sinkler Mebel Dodzh i Emma Goldman 10 Vdohnovlennaya takim okruzheniem ona napisala serii statej po polovoj gigiene ozaglavlennye kak Chto dolzhna znat kazhdaya mat i Chto dolzhna znat kazhdaya devushka dlya socialisticheskogo zhurnala Nyu Jorkskij prizyv New York Call note 1 12 Pervyj vypusk zhurnala Zhenskij bunt The Woman Rebel Mart 1914 S 1914 goda Senger nachala vypuskat gazetu Zhenskij bunt The Woman Rebel vosmistranichnuyu gazetu propagandiruyushuyu kontracepciyu ispolzuya slogan Net bogov net hozyaev No Gods No Masters 13 note 2 Senger sotrudnichaya s druzyami anarhistami vvela termin kontrol nad rozhdaemostyu birth control kak bolee iskrennyuyu alternativu evfemizmu ogranichenie semi family limitation 14 i obyavila chto kazhdaya zhenshina dolzhna stat absolyutnoj hozyajkoj svoego tela 15 Odnoj iz celej izdaniya Zhenskogo bunta bylo sprovocirovat obshestvennyj rezonans protiv zakonov zapreshayushih rasprostranenie informacii o kontracepcii 16 Senger takzhe hotela opublikovat knigu kotoraya napryamuyu rasskazhet o metodah kontracepcii v otlichie ot Zhenskogo bunta gde kontracepciya obsuzhdalas nenapryamuyu informaciya o kotoryh byla sobrana preimushestvenno iz evropejskih izdanij i opublikovala pamflet Ogranichenie semi Family Limitation pryamo narushavshij zakony Komstoka 17 Zakony Komstoka zapreshali peresylku po pochte materialov soderzhashih informaciyu priznannuyu nepristojnoj K takovoj otnosilas v chastnosti informaciya o protivozachatochnyh sredstvah sami protivozachatochnye sredstva i informaciya ob abortah 18 Eyo cel byla dostignuta kogda ona byla osuzhdena v avguste 1914 goda no obviniteli sosredotochili svoyo vnimanie na statyah Zhenskogo bunta gde Senger bolshe pisala o politicheskih ubijstvah i brakah chem o kontracepcii 19 Opasayas byt zaklyuchyonnoj v tyurmu gde ona lishilas by vozmozhnosti borotsya za kontrol nad rozhdaemostyu ona pereehala v Angliyu pod chuzhim imenem Berta Vatson vo izbezhaniya aresta 20 Poka Senger zhila v Evrope muzh eyo rasprostranyal kopii Ogranicheniya semi Family Limitation v kachestve nelegalnogo pochtovogo sluzhashego v rezultate chego byl zaklyuchyon v tyurmu na 30 dnej 10 Vo vremya otsutstviya Senger v SShA na rodine rosla eyo podderzhka i v oktyabre 1915 ona vernulas v Shtaty 21 Izvestnyj advokat Klerens Derrou predlozhil vystupit v zashitu Senger besplatno no opasayas davleniya obshestvennosti pravitelstvo snizilo ceny v nachale 1916 22 Dvizhenie za regulirovanie rozhdaemosti Pravit Stranica iz gazety Ogranichenie semi Family Limitation 1917 god izdaniya opisanie matochnogo kolpachka V Evrope byl bolee liberalnyj vzglyad na kontracepciyu chem v SShA i kogda Senger posetila Gollandskuyu kliniku po kontrolyu rozhdaemosti v 1915 godu izuchaya diafragmu ona ubedilas chto eto bolee effektivnoe sredstvo kontracepcii chem suppozitorii i u neyo rodilas ideya chto ona mogla by rasprostranyat ih na territorii SShA Diafragm ne bylo v SShA i Senger so svoimi storonnikami nachala ih importirovat iz Evropy v narushenie zakonov 10 V 1916 godu Senger opublikovala statyu Chto dolzhna znat kazhdaya devushka What Every Girl Should Know kotoraya zatragivala takie temy kak menstruaciya i seksualnost V 1917 godu ona nachala publikovat ezhemesyachnoe izdanie Obzor kontrolya nad rozhdaemostyu The Birth Control Review note 3 16 oktyabrya 1916 goda Senger otkryla kliniku planirovaniya semi i kontrolya nad rozhdaemostyu na ulice Amboj 46 v predmeste Braunsvill v Brukline pervuyu v svoyom rode na territorii SShA 23 Cherez devyat dnej posle otkrytiya kliniki Senger byla arestovana za narushenie zakonov shtata Nyu Jork zapreshavshego rasprostranenie kontraceptivov sud sostoyalsya v yanvare 1917 goda 24 Ona byla osuzhdena i sudya predlozhil vynesti bolee myagkij prigovor esli ona dast obeshanie ne narushat zakon snova na chto Senger otvetila Ya ne mogu uvazhat zakon sushestvuyushij segodnya 25 Ona byla prigovorena k 30 dnyam ispravitelnyh rabot 25 Pervaya apellyaciya byla otklonena vtoroj sud sostoyalsya v 1918 godu i dvizhenie po kontrolyu nad rozhdaemostyu oderzhalo pobedu kogda sudya Nyu Jorkskogo Apellyacionnogo suda Friderik Krejn izdal zakon razreshayushij vracham predpisyvat kontracepciyu 26 Pokazatelnost kotoraya okruzhala arest Senger eyo sud povtornoe rassmotrenie dela sposobstvovala povysheniyu aktivnosti dvizheniya po kontrolyu nad rozhdaemostyu Dvizhenie zasluzhilo podderzhku mnozhestva dobrovolcev kotorye podderzhali Senger i yavilis dlya neyo nadezhnoj podderzhkoj v budushem 27 Senger otdalilas ot svoego muzha v 1913 godu oficialnyj razvod sostoyalsya v 1921 godu 28 Vo vremya razryva otnoshenij s muzhem ona imela svyazi s Ellisom Hevlokom i G Uellsom 29 V 1922 godu Senger vyshla zamuzh za neftyanogo magnata Noa Sli Noah Slee i ostavalas v etom brake do 1943 goda Kapital Sli pomog Senger osushestvlyat svoyu deyatelnost 30 Amerikanskaya Liga kontrolya nad rozhdaemostyu Pravit Senger publikovala Obzor kontrolya nad rozhdaemostyu Birth Control Review s 1917 po 1929 note 4 V 1921 godu Senger osnovala Amerikanskuyu Ligu kontrolya nad rozhdaemostyu American Birth Control League s celyu rasshireniya chisla svoih storonnikov vklyuchaya srednij klass 31 Osnovopolagayushimi principami Amerikanskoj Ligi kontrolya nad rozhdaemostyu byli sleduyushie 32 My hotim chtoby deti 1 byli zachaty po lyubvi 2 rozhdeny materyu po osoznannomu zhelaniyu 3 dlya ih rozhdeniya byli by obespecheny usloviya zdorovoj nasledstvennosti Takim obrazom my stoim za to chto kazhdaya zhenshina dolzhna obladat siloj i svobodoj predotvratit zachatie za isklyucheniem sluchaev kogda eti usloviya budut udovletvoreny Posle togo kak Senger obnaruzhila chto zakon osvobodil vrachej ot zapreta na rasprostranenie kontracepcii dlya zhenshin esli ona predpisana po medicinskim pokazaniyam v 1923 godu ona osnovala Klinicheskoe Issledovatelskoe Byuro Clinical Research Bureau ispolzuya dannuyu lazejku v zakone 33 Klinicheskoe Issledovatelskoe Byuro stalo pervoj legalnoj klinikoj po regulirovaniyu rozhdaemosti v SShA i ono bylo polnostyu ukomplektovano zhenskim personalom vrachej i socialnyh rabotnikov 34 Klinika poluchala finansirovanie ot semi Rokfellerov kotorye prodolzhali finansirovanie dela Senger v techenie desyatiletiya odnako delali eto anonimno vo izbezhanie obshestvennogo vzryva protiv ih familii 35 V 1922 godu Senger sovershila poezdki v Kitaj Koreyu i Yaponiyu Vposledstvii rabotaya s Perl Bak otkryla kliniku planirovaniya semi v Shanhae 36 Senger poseshala Yaponiyu shest raz sotrudnichaya s yaponskoj feministkoj Sidzue Kato prodvigaya ideyu regulirovaniya rozhdaemosti 37 V 1926 godu Senger chitaet lekciyu po kontrolyu nad rozhdaemostyu dlya zhenskogo otdeleniya Ku kluks klana v Silver Lejk Silver Lake shtat Nyu Dzhersi 38 Ona vspominaet eto sobytie kak odin iz samyh prichudlivyh eksperimentov svoih vystuplenij i dobavlyaet chto ona ispolzovala tolko naiprostejshie terminy ponyatnye dazhe dlya rebyonka Vystuplenie Senger bylo horosho vosprinyato gruppoj i v rezultate byli polucheny predlozheniya ot dyuzhiny podobnyh grupp 38 V 1928 godu voznik konflikt v rukovodstve dvizheniya po regulirovaniyu rozhdaemosti kotoryj privel Senger k otkazu ot dolzhnosti prezidenta Amerikanskogo Byuro regulirovaniya rozhdaemosti i buduchi glavoj Klinicheskogo Issledovatelskogo Byuro ona pereimenovala ego v Klinicheskoe Issledovatelskoe Byuro po regulirovaniyu rozhdaemosti bylo polozheno nachalo raskolu v dvizhenii prodolzhavshemusya do 1938 goda 39 Senger mnogo rabotala s obshestvennostyu Nachinaya s 1916 goda ona chasto vystupala v cerkvyah zhenskih klubah domah teatrah dlya rabochih svyashennosluzhitelej liberalov socialistov uchenyh i zhenshin predstavitelnic vysshego klassa 40 V 1920 h godah ona napisala neskolko knig kotorye imeli obshenacionalnoe znachenie dlya prodvizheniya idei regulirovaniya rozhdaemosti Mezhdu 1920 i 1926 godami byl prodan tirazh v 567000 ekzemplyarov knig Zhenshina i novaya rasa Woman and the New Race i Povorot civilizacii The Pivot of Civilization 41 Era planirovaniya semi Pravit V 1929 godu Senger osnovala Nacionalnyj Komitet federalnogo zakonodatelstva po kontrolyu nad rozhdaemostyu v celyah lobbirovaniya v zakonodatelstve otmeny ogranichenij na kontracepciyu 42 Eta popytka poterpela neudachu togda Senger v 1932 godu zakazala diafragmu v Yaponii s celyu provocirovat reshayushuyu bitvu v sudah Diafragma byla konfiskovana pravitelstvom SShA i posleduyushaya tyazhba Senger s zakonodatelstvom privela v 1936 godu k resheniyu suda otmenivshego zakon Komstoka zapreshavshij vracham ispolzovat kontraceptivy 43 Eta pobeda v sude posluzhila prichinoj togo chto v 1937 godu Amerikanskaya Medicinskaya Associaciya prinyala kontracepciyu v kachestve obychnoj medicinskoj uslugi i klyuchevogo komponenta programmy medicinskoj shkoly 44 Klinicheskoe Issledovatelskoe Byuro regulirovaniya rozhdaemosti kotorym rukovodila Senger s 1930 po 1973 Eta pobeda v sude v 1936 godu byla kulminaciej v borbe Senger za kontrol nad rozhdaemostyu i dala ej vozmozhnost v vozraste 50 let pereehat v Tuson shtat Arizona gde ona uzhe staralas igrat menee vazhnuyu rol v dvizhenie za kontrol nad rozhdaemostyu Vopreki svoim namereniyam ona ostavalas v aktive dvizheniya do 1950 h godov 44 V 1937 godu Senger stanovitsya predsedatelem tolko chto sozdannogo Amerikanskogo soveta po kontrolyu nad rozhdaemostyu Birth Control Council of America i pytaetsya unichtozhit raskol mezhdu Amerikanskim Byuro po kontrolyu nad rozhdaemostyu i Klinicheskim Issledovatelskoim Byuro po kontrolyu nad rozhdaemostyu 45 Eyo popytka uvenchalas uspehom i dve organizacii obedinilis v 1939 godu kak Amerikanskaya Federaciya po kontrolyu nad rozhdaemostyu Birth Control Federation of America 46 note 5 Nesmotrya na to chto Senger prodolzhila rabotu v kachestve prezidenta ona bolee ne obladala toj vlastyu kotoruyu imela v gody zarozhdeniya dvizheniya i v 1942 godu bolee konservativnye sily organizacii pereimenovali eyo v Amerikanskuyu Federaciyu Planirovaniya Semi Parenthood Federation of America imya protiv kotorogo Senger vozrazhala kak protiv slishkom evfemisticheskogo 47 V 1946 godu Senger osnovala Mezhdunarodnyj Komitet Planirovaniya Semi International Committee on Planned Parenthood v 1956 godu preobrazovannyj v Mezhdunarodnuyu Associaciyu Planirovaniya Semi vskore stavshuyu krupnejshej v mire mezhdunarodnoj nepravitelstvennoj organizaciej po planirovaniyu semi Senger byla pervym prezidentom organizacii i zanimala etu dolzhnost do 80 letnego vozrasta 48 V nachale 1950 h Senger odobrila filantropa Ketrin Mak Komik v eyo namerenii subsidirovat biologa Gregori Pinkusa dlya razrabotki protivozachatochnyh tabletok 49 Nasledie Senger Pravit Senger umerla v 1966 godu ot ostroj serdechnoj nedostatochnosti v Tusone shtat Arizona v vozraste 86 let v god otmechennyj pikom eyo 50 letnej karery Verhovnyj Sud SShA po delu Grisvolda protiv Konnektikuta legalizoval kontrol nad rozhdaemostyu note 6 Senger pohoronena v Fishkille ryadom so svoej sestroj Nana Higgins i svoim vtorym muzhem Noa Sli 50 Ploshad Margaret Senger na peresechenii Mott Strit i Bliker strit Istoriya Senger byla napisana mnogimi biografami sredi kotoryh biografiya napisannaya Devidom Kennedi David Kennedy v 1970 godu za kotoruyu byla prisuzhdena premiya Bylo snyato neskolko filmov vklyuchaya Vybor serdca Istoriya Margaret Senger 51 Trudy Senger hranyatsya v dvuh universitetah 52 i Kolledzhe Smita 53 Pravitelstvo i drugie organizacii uvekovechili imya Senger nazvaniem eyo imenem neskolkih obektov takih kak zhiloj kompleks Universiteta Stouni Bruk chitalnyj zal biblioteki Kolledzha Uellesli Wellesley College s 54 i skver Margaret Senger v Grinvich Villidzh v Nyu Jorke 55 V 1993 godu klinika Margaret Senger Margaret Sanger Clinic gde ona nachala predostavlyat uslugi po kontrolyu nad rozhdaemostyu v Nyu Jorke v seredine dvadcatogo stoletiya byla otmechena kak nacionalnaya dostoprimechatelnost Nacionalnoj Parkovoj sluzhboj 56 V 1966 godu Mezhdunarodnaya Associaciya Planirovaniya Semi stala prisuzhdat ezhegodnuyu premiyu imeni Margaret Senger lichnosti otlichivshejsya i priznannoj liderom v borbe za reproduktivnoe zdorove i reproduktivnye prava Premiej byli nagrazhdeny Dzhon D Rokfeller III Ketrin Hepbyorn Dzhejn Fonda Hillari Klinton i Ted Tyorner 57 Dvizhenie Za Pravo na Zhizn chasto obvinyaet Senger za otnoshenie k zdorovyu materi i kritikuet eyo vzglyady na rasu aborty i evgeniku 58 59 note 7 Vzglyady i mneniya PravitSeksualnost Pravit Vo vremya puteshestviya po Evrope v 1914 godu Senger poznakomilas s Hevlokom Ellisom Havelock Ellis psihologom napisavshim mnogo rabot o seksualnosti 60 Pod vliyaniem Ellisa Senger otvergla vzglyad Frejda na seksualnost v obmen na vzglyad Ellisa schitavshego chto seksualnost eto moshnaya osvobozhdayushaya sila 61 Eto dalo Senger eshyo odin argument v podderzhku kontrolya nad rozhdaemostyu zhenshinam neobhodimo realizovyvat vazhnejshuyu psihologicheskuyu potrebnost v udovletvorenii seksualnyh zhelanij ne opasayas nezhelatelnoj beremennosti 62 Senger takzhe verila v to chto seksualnost budet obsuzhdatsya s bolshej iskrennostyu 61 Evgenika Pravit Senger schitala chto kak kontrol nad rozhdaemostyu tak i propaganda evgeniki vedut rasu po puti unichtozheniya nepolnocennyh assist the race toward the elimination of the unfit 63 Senger byla storonnikom negativnoj evgeniki socialnoj filosofii zayavlyayushej chto nasledstvennye cherty cheloveka mogut byt uluchsheny cherez socialnoe vmeshatelstvo Senger predlagala reshat problemy evgeniki cherez zhyostkuyu immigracionnuyu politiku svobodnoe ispolzovanie metodov kontrolya nad rozhdaemostyu polnoe pravo na planirovanie semi dlya svobodno razumnyh i obyazatelnuyu segregaciyu ili sterilizaciyu dlya umstvenno otstalyh 64 65 V knige Povorot civilizacii The Pivot of Civilization Senger vystupaet za nasilstvennoe predotvrashenie porozhdeniya potomstva u yavno slaboumnyh 66 Vystupaya v podderzhku negativnoj evgeniki Senger utverzhdaet chto sama po sebe evgenika ne effektivna i tolko s pomoshyu ustanovleniya kontrolya nad rozhdaemostyu mozhet dostich svoih celej 67 68 69 Senger takzhe schitala chto zhiteli bednyh rajonov kotorye v silu svoej zhivotnoj prirody razmnozhayutsya kak kroliki i skoro mogli by perejti granicy svoih rajonov ili territorij i togda zarazit luchshie elementy obshestva boleznyami i nizshimi genami dolzhny podlezhat estestvennomu otboru 70 Sluzhby po materinstvu dlya zhenshin v nishenskih rajonah vredny dlya obshestva i dlya rasy Miloserdie tolko i delaet chto udlinyaet nishetu neprisposoblennyh Margaret Senger The Pivot of Civilization 1922 Naryadu s politikoj evgeniki Senger podderzhivala zhyostkuyu immigracionnuyu politiku V Plane mira A Plan for Peace ona predlozhila sozdat v Kongresse departament zanimayushijsya problemami naseleniya Ona takzhe predlagala chtoby immigracionnaya politika isklyuchila eto sostoyanie izvestnoe kak prinosyashee ubytok zhiznesposobnosti rasy a takzhe sterilizaciyu i segregaciyu dlya lyudej bolnyh neizlechimymi nasledstvennymi zabolevaniyami 64 65 71 Rasa Pravit Senger schitala chto svetlokozhaya rasa imeet prevoshodstvo pered cvetnymi rasami predlagaya prinuditelnuyu sterilizaciyu dlya teh kogo schitala neprigodnym dlya vosproizvodstva Naprimer v svoem zhurnale Obzor kontrolya nad rozhdaemostyu za aprel 1933 g ona posvyatila celyj vypusk sterilizacii 72 Prichyom neprigodnymi dlya vosproizvodstva schitalis ne tolko predstaviteli opredelyonnyh ras i nacionalnostej negry evrei immigranty iz Yuzhnoj Evropy slavyane no i lica s nizkim koefficientom umstvennogo razvitiya 73 V 1929 godu Dzhejms H Habert chernokozhij socialnyj rabotnik i lider Nyu Jorkskoj Gorodskoj Ligi Urban League poprosil Senger otkryt kliniku v Garleme 74 V 1930 godu Senger ispolzovav sredstva fonda Dzhuliusa Rozenvalda otkryla kliniku ukomplektovannuyu afroamerikanskimi vrachami Klinika upravlyalas soveshatelnoj kollegiej iz pyatnadcati chlenov kotorye byli afroamerikanskimi vrachami medsyostrami klerkami zhurnalistami i socialnymi rabotnikami Klinika reklamirovalas v afroamerikanskoj presse i v afroamerikanskih cerkvyah 75 S 1939 po 1942 gody Senger byla pochyotnym delegatom s Birth Control Federation of America igraya rukovodyashuyu rol naryadu s Meri Lasker Mary Lasker i Klarens Gambla Clarence Gamble uchastvuya v Chyornom Proekte Negro Project popytke ustanovit kontrol nad rozhdaemostyu dlya bednyh afroamerikancev 76 Dlya ego osushestvleniya bylo privlecheno neskolko chernokozhih svyashennikov kotorye ezdili po yugu SShA i propovedovali kontrol nad rozhdaemostyu sredi afroamerikancev 77 Aborty Pravit Senger byla storonnicej planirovaniya semi lyubymi metodami chto ochen podrobno opisyvaetsya v eyo knige Woman and the New Race Senger pryamo pishet Samoe miloserdnoe chto bolshaya semya mozhet sdelat dlya svoego mladenca eto ubit ego 78 Ona otmechaet chto aborty bolee vredny dlya zdorovya materi chem kontracepciya no schitaet chto zhenshina dolzhna prinimat lyubye mery chtoby ogranichit kolichestvo svoih detej radi svoego stremleniya k svobode i radi zashity uzhe imeyushihsya detej 79 Raboty PravitKnigi i pamfletyWhat Every Mother Should Know Originally published in 1911 or 1912 based on a series of articles Sanger published in 1911 in the New York Call which were in turn based on a set of lectures Sanger gave to groups of Socialist party women in 1910 11 80 Multiple editions published through the 1920s by Max N Maisel and Sincere Publishing with the title What Every Mother Should Know or how six little children were taught the truth Online 1921 edition Michigan State University Family Limitation Originally published 1914 as a 16 page pamphlet also published in several later editions Online 1917 6th edition Michigan State University What Every Girl Should Know Originally published 1916 by Max N Maisel 91 pages also published in several later editions Online 1920 edition Online 1922 ed Michigan State University The Case for Birth Control A Supplementary Brief and Statement of Facts May 1917 published to provide information to the court in a legal proceeding Online Google Books Woman and the New Race 1920 Truth Publishing forward by Havelock Ellis Online Harvard University Online Project Gutenberg Online Google Books Debate on Birth Control 1921 text of a debate between Sanger Theodore Roosevelt Winter Russell George Bernard Shaw Robert L Wolf and Emma Sargent Russell Published as issue 208 of Little Blue Book series by Haldeman Julius Co Online 1921 Michigan State University The Pivot of Civilization 1922 Brentanos Online 1922 Project Gutenberg Online 1922 Google Books Motherhood in Bondage 1928 Brentanos Online Google books My Fight for Birth Control 1931 New York Farrar amp Rinehart An Autobiography neopr New York NY Cooper Square Press 1938 ISBN 0 8154 1015 8 Periodicheskie izdaniyaThe Woman Rebel Seven issues published monthly from March 1914 to August 1914 Sanger was publisher and editor Birth Control Review Published monthly from February 1917 to 1940 Sanger was Editor until 1929 when she resigned from the ABCL 81 Not to be confused with Birth Control News published by the London based Society for Constructive Birth Control and Racial Progress Sborniki i antologiiSanger Margaret The selected papers of Margaret Sanger Volume 1 The Woman Rebel 1900 1928 Esther Katz Cathy Moran Hajo Peter Engelman Eds University of Illinois Press 2003 Sanger Margaret The selected papers of Margaret Sanger Volume 2 Birth Control Comes of Age 1928 1939 Esther Katz Cathy Moran Hajo Peter Engelman Eds University of Illinois Press 2007 Sanger Margaret The selected papers of Margaret Sanger Volume 3 The Politics of Planned Parenthood 1939 1966 Esther Katz Cathy Moran Hajo Peter Engelman Eds University of Illinois Press 2010 Raboty Margaret Sanger v proekte Gutenberg The Margaret Sanger Papers at Smith College The Margaret Sanger Papers Project at New York University McElderry Michael J Margaret Sanger A Register of Her Papers in the Library of Congress neopr Manuscript Division Library of Congress 1976 Data obrasheniya 30 marta 2009 Arhivirovano 3 aprelya 2005 goda Correspondence between Sanger and McCormick from The Pill documentary movie supplementary material PBS American Experience producers online Sm takzhe PravitAbort Demograficheskaya politika Evgenika Kontracepciya Kontrol nad rozhdaemostyu Planirovanie semi Prolajf Prochojs Rasizm Reproduktivnoe zdorove en Comstock laws angl Primechaniya Pravit Senger napisala dve serii statej v gazete Nyu Jorkskij prizyv New York Call Chto dolzhna znat kazhdaya mat 1911 1912 i Chto dolzhna znat kazhdaya devushka 1912 1913 Pozdnee oni byli opublikovany v vide knizhnogo izdaniya 11 Slogan Net bogov net hozyaev vpervye byl ispolzovan na transparante Industrialnymi rabochimi mira vo vremya zabastovki rabochih tekstilnoj fabriki v Lourense v 1912 godu Pervoe izdanie Obzora kontrolya nad rozhdaemostyu Birth Control Review bylo opublikovano v fevrale 1917 goda Zagolovok vnizu stranicy etogo izdaniya chitaetsya tak Pochemu ona vsegda dolzhna umolyat naprasno Vy zhe medsestra Vy mozhete mne rasskazat Dlya polzy detej pomogite mne Data obedineniya organizacij zaregistrirovana v 1938 godu ne 1939 v O Conner Karen Gender and Women s Leadership A Reference Handbook p 743 O Conner cites Gordon 1976 V 1965 godu sudom byl otmenyon odin iz zakonov o kontracepcii zakon Komstoka v Konnektikute i Massachusetse Odnako Grisvold vystupal tolko protiv zakona kasayushegosya brachnyh otnoshenij Pozdnee v dele Grisvolda protiv Bejrda 1972 g Grisvold kosnulsya takzhe lyudej ne sostoyashih v brachnyh otnosheniyah Tipichnye publikacii prolajf dvizheniya Franks Angela Margaret Sanger s eugenic legacy the control of female fertility McFarland 2005Istochniki Pravit Cox p 4 Steinem Gloria Time s 100 Most Important People of the Century Margaret Sanger Time 13 aprelya 1998 Buchanan p 121 Rosalind Rosenberg Divided lives American women in the twentieth century p 82 Sanger Autobiography p 13 Cooper James L Cooper Sheila M The Roots of American Feminist Thought neopr Alvin and Bacon 1973 S 219 Baker p 23 The selected papers Vol 1 p 4 The selected papers Vol 1 pp 4 5 Baker pp 33 36 Baker p 33 38 1 2 3 4 Chesler Ellen Woman of valor Margaret Sanger and the birth control movement in America angl New York Simon Schuster 1992 ISBN 0 671 60088 5 Engelman p 32 Blanchard Revolutionary sparks freedom of expression in modern America p 50 Baker p 69 Coates p 49 Kennedy pp 1 22 Sanger The selected papers of Margaret Sanger Volume 1 p 70 Galvin Rachel Margaret Sanger s Deeds of Terrible Virtue Arhivnaya kopiya ot 29 dekabrya 2010 na Wayback Machine Humanities National Endowment for the Humanities September October 1998 Volume 19 Number 5 Engelman Peter C Margaret Sanger article in Encyclopedia of leadership Volume 4 George R Goethals et al Eds SAGE 2004 p 1382 Engelman cites facsimile edited by Alex Baskin Woman Rebel New York Archives of Social History 1976 Facsimile of original McCann 2010 pp 750 1 Engelman p 34 Rosenbaum p 252 Beznravstvennost neopr Data obrasheniya 17 fevralya 2012 Arhivirovano 16 iyunya 2012 goda Engelman p 43 Baker p 89 Kennedy David M angl russk 3 Birth Control in America neopr Yale University Press 1970 S 77 ISBN 0300014953 Sanger Autobiography pp 183 9 Selected Papers vol 1 p 199 Baker p 115 Engelman p 101 1 2 Cox p 65 Engelman pp 101 3 McCann 2010 p 751 Cox p 76 Chesler pp 182 186 Cohen p 64 Freedman Estelle B The essential feminist reader Random House Digital Inc 2007 p 211 What it is How it works What it will do The Proceedings of the First American Birth Control Conference Nov 11 12 1921 pp 207 8 The Birth Control Review Vol V Num 12 December 1921 Margaret Sanger Ed p 18 Sanger Pivot of Civilization 2001 reprint edited by Michael W Perry p 409 These principles were adopted at the first meeting of the ABCL in late 1921 Baker p 196 Baker pp 196 197 The Selected Papers Vol 2 p 54 Chesler pp 277 293 558 Harr John Ensor Johnson Peter J The Rockefeller Century Three Generations of America s Greatest Family angl New York Charles Scribner and Sons 1988 P 191 461 62 crucial anonymous Rockefeller grants to the Clinical Research Bureau and support for population control Cohen pp 64 5 Baker p 275 Katō Shidzue Facing two ways the story of my life Stanford University Press 1984 p xxviii D Itri Patricia Ward Cross currents in the international women s movement 1848 1948 Popular Press 1999pp 163 167 1 2 Sanger Margaret Margaret Sanger An Autobiography neopr New York W W Norton 1938 S 361 366 7 McCann 1994 pp 177 8 MSPP gt About gt Birth Control Organizations gt Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau neopr nedostupnaya ssylka Nyu edu 18 oktyabrya 2005 Data obrasheniya 7 oktyabrya 2009 Arhivirovano 2 iyunya 2010 goda Sanger Margaret The Autobiography of Margaret Sanger neopr Courier Dover Publications 2004 S 366 ISBN 0486434923 Baker p 161 Cohen p 63 NYU Margaret Sanger Papers Project National Committee on Federal Legislation on Birth Control Rose Melody Abortion a documentary and reference guide ABC CLIO 2008 p 29 1 2 Biographical Note Smith College Margaret Sangers Papers NYU Margaret Sanger Papers Project Birth Control Council of America The Margaret Sanger Papers MSPP gt About gt Birth Control Organizations gt PPFA neopr nyu edu 2010 last update Data obrasheniya 17 oktyabrya 2011 Arhivirovano 16 iyunya 2012 goda Chesler p 393 NYU Ford Lynne E Encyclopedia of women and American politics p 406 Esser Stuart Joan E Margaret Higgins Sanger in Encyclopedia of social welfare history in North America Herrick John and Stuart Paul Eds SAGE 2005 p 323 Engelman Peter McCormick Katharine Dexter in Encyclopedia of Birth Control Vern L Bullough Ed ABC CLIO 2001 pp 170 1 Marc A Fritz Leon Speroff Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility Lippincott Williams amp Wilkins 2010 pp 959 960 Baker p 307 Choices of the Heart The Margaret Sanger Story 1995 neopr IMDb 8 marta 1995 Data obrasheniya 29 iyulya 2009 Nyu Jorkskom Universitete Smith College collection web site Friends of the Library Newsletter Kayton Bruce Radical Walking Tours of New York City neopr New York Seven Stories Press angl russk 2003 S 111 ISBN 1583225544 National Historic Landmark Program neopr nedostupnaya ssylka Data obrasheniya 17 fevralya 2012 Arhivirovano 18 marta 2012 goda Rockefeller 3d Wins Sanger Award Data obrasheniya 14 fevralya 2011 Planned Parenthood Salutes Visionary Leaders in the Fight for Reproductive Freedom Press release in Business Wire 29 Mar 2003 5006 General OneFile Web 11 Feb 2011 Lozano Juan Clinton champions women s rights worldwide 27 marta 2009 Data obrasheniya 14 fevralya 2011 Marshall Robert G angl russk Donovan Chuck Blessed Are the Barren The Social Policy of Planned Parenthood angl Fort Collins CO Ignatius Press angl russk 1991 ISBN 0898703530 ISBN 978 0 89870 353 5 Minority Anti Abortion Movement Gains Steam neopr NPR 24 sentyabrya 2007 Data obrasheniya 17 yanvarya 2009 Arhivirovano 16 iyunya 2012 goda Cox p 55 1 2 Chesler pp 13 14 Chesler Kennedy p 127 Engelman p 132 1 2 Porter N S Bothne N Leonard J Public Policy Issues Research Trends neopr Evans S J Nova Science 2008 S 126 ISBN 9781600218736 1 2 The Sanger Hitler Equation Margaret Sanger Papers Project Newsletter 32 Winter 2002 3 New York University Department of History Sanger Pivot p 181 quoted in Charles Valenza Was Margaret Sanger a Racist Family Planning Perspectives January February 1985 p 44 Sanger M Birth Control and Racial Betterment Birth Control Review Feb 1919 pp 11 12 Online Arhivnaya kopiya ot 6 sentyabrya 2015 na Wayback Machine Franks A Margaret Sanger s eugenic legacy the control of female fertility angl 1971 P 49 ISBN 978 0 7864 2011 7 Freedman E B The essential feminist reader neopr Modern Library angl russk 2007 S 211 Sanger M The Pivot of Civilization 1922 Sanger A Plan For Peace Birth Control Review April 1932 p 106 Online Sanger Birth Control Review April 1933 p 85 105 Online Arhivnaya kopiya ot 25 aprelya 2013 na Wayback Machine E Drogin Margaret Sanger Father of Modern Society CUL Publications 1980 Section 1 p 18 24 Hajo p 85 Hajo p 85 From Planned Parenthood The Truth about Margaret Sanger neopr nedostupnaya ssylka Planned Parenthood Federation of America Data obrasheniya 17 fevralya 2012 Arhivirovano 13 iyunya 2010 goda Engelman p 175 Birth Control Federation of America The Margaret Sanger Papers Project Birth Control or Race Control Sanger and the Negro Project angl Margaret Sanger Papers Project Newsletter journal Margaret Sanger Papers Project 2002 14 November no 28 Smear n Fear New York University History Department Margaret Sanger Papers Project 2010 1 br gt Birth Control or Race Control Sanger and the Negro Project angl Margaret Sanger Papers Project Newsletter journal Margaret Sanger Papers Project 2002 14 November no 28 Woman and the New Race V The Wickedness of Creating Large Families Woman and the New Race X Contraceptives or Abortion Coates p 48 Hoolihan Christopher 2004 An Annotated Catalogue of the Edward C Atwater Collection of American Popular Medicine and Health Reform Vol 2 M Z University Rochester Press p 299 Birth Control Review Margaret Sanger Papers Project NYU neopr nedostupnaya ssylka Data obrasheniya 17 fevralya 2012 Arhivirovano 8 marta 2012 goda Bibliografiya PravitBaker Jeah H 2011 Margaret Sanger A Life of Passion Macmillan Buchanan Paul D 2009 American Women s Rights Movement A Chronology of Events and of Opportunities from 1600 to 2008 Branden Books Chesler Ellen Woman of valor Margaret Sanger and the birth control movement in America angl New York Simon Schuster 1992 ISBN 0 671 60088 5 Coates Patricia Walsh 2008 Margaret Sanger and the origin of the birth control movement 1910 1930 the concept of women s sexual autonomy Edwin Mellen Press 2008 Cohen Warren I 2009 Profiles in humanity the battle for peace freedom equality and human rights Rowman amp Littlefield Coigney Virginia 1969 Margaret Sanger rebel with a cause Doubleday Cox Vicki Margaret Sanger Rebel For Women s Rights neopr Chelsea House Publications angl russk 2004 ISBN 0791080307 Engelman Peter C 2011 A History of the Birth Control Movement in America ABC CLIO ISBN 978 0 313 36509 6 Franks Angela 2005 Margaret Sanger s eugenic legacy the control of female fertility McFarland Gordon Linda angl russk Woman s Body Woman s Right A Social History of Birth Control in America angl New York Grossman Publishers 1976 Gray Madeline Margaret Sanger A Biography of the Champion of Birth Control angl New York City NY Richard Marek Publishers 1979 ISBN 0 399 90019 5 Hajo Cathy Moran 2010 Birth Control on Main Street Organizing Clinics in the United States 1916 1939 University of Illinois Press ISBN 978 0 252 03536 4 Kennedy David angl russk Birth Control in America The Career of Margaret Sanger angl Yale University Press 1970 Lader Lawrence 1955 The Margaret Sanger Story and the Fight For Birth Control Doubleday Reprinted in Westport Connecticut Greenwood Press 1975 ISBN 978 0 8371 7076 3 Lader Lawrence and Meltzer Milton 1969 Margaret Sanger pioneer of birth control Crowell McCann Carole Ruth 1994 Birth control politics in the United States 1916 1945 Cornell University Press McCann Carole Ruth 2010 Women as Leaders in the Contraceptive Movement in Gender and Women s Leadership A Reference Handbook Karen O Connor Ed SAGE Rosenbaum Judith 2010 The Call to Action Margaret Sanger the Brownsville Jewish Women and Political Activism in Gender and Jewish History Marion A Kaplan Deborah Dash Moore Eds Indiana University Press 2010 Viney Wayne King D A A history of psychology ideas and context angl Boston Allyn and Bacon angl russk 2003 ISBN 0 205 33582 9 Ssylki PravitAngel predohranitel v strane bolshevikov rus Margaret Sanger Papers Project angl Istochnik https ru wikipedia org w index php title Senger Margaret amp oldid 113236362, Википедия, чтение, книга, библиотека, поиск, нажмите,

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